While UDL is accepted among many practitioners and scholars as a sound approach, reliable empirical research on its effectiveness is lacking (Edyburn, 2010; Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Daley, & Rose, 2012). Technology-assisted instruction provides students with a highly flexible, accessible, and collaborative yet at the same time individualized model of delivery. CONCEPT OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Inclusive education is the process of strengthening the capacity of education system to reach out to all learners as a strategy to achieve education for all. Under this banner, Meyer, Rose, and Gordon (2016) highlight the need to provide students with options for self-regulation, including the promotion of expectations and beliefs that optimize student motivation. 2014).Inclusive education is on the global agenda to attract the involvement and collaboration of all stakeholders. The UDL model proposed by Rose and colleagues (2014) provides a process under which the needs of a wide variety of learners may be met in a single classroom or learning situation. Block 3, Systems and structures that support the process, involves examining and changing the “big picture” of how we educate children. Under this principle Meyer et al. Links to related videos. Snyder (1999) argues that the “inclusion movement has primarily been a special education movement” (p. 175). In a differentiated classroom, teachers recognize that all students are different and require varied teaching methods to be successful in school” (p. 6). With DI a frank and pragmatic acknowledgment of difference becomes important at the outset, as adjustments and adaptations are made so as to provide all individual learners with the opportunity to engage in rich and meaningful learning. The use of technology, linked in this article to the IPAA and UDL, but also very apparent in DI practice, provides students with a wide variety of ways to interact, investigate, check for understanding, and immerse themselves in learning. Initially schools were largely for those who could either afford to attend, or who were particularly well suited to them, or both. But progress comes slowly. Learning can occur in the classroom and also outside of the classroom. The support for this action is being guided through the principles of The Salamanca Statement (1994). This can help ensure that approaches that perpetuate segregation do not find their way into settings that are trying to be inclusive. A study in Cyprus by Valiandes (2015) involving a sample of 24 teachers and 479 grade 4 students yielded similar conclusions, with the use of DI in mixed-ability classrooms producing positive effects on student achievement. In particular, the recent development of the IPAA Framework means that there is much to be done in terms of evaluating methods of implementation and general effectiveness. From kindergarten to calculus class, auditory learners will be some of the most engaged and responsive members of any classroom. Pappano (2011) argues that there is a gap between theory and practice, with some students expressing discontent when they noticed that their assignment was different to that of other children even as the approach was implemented by an experienced teacher in the area. These sorts of environments can promote learning about how to work collaboratively with others, as well as foster individual learning. On the whole smaller-scale studies appear to be more prevalent. What differentiated instruction means. Introduction. inclusive model; the needs of students who have more active and involved parents, have a better chance of getting met, than those of students with uninvolved parents; and often this model is used to stave off a confrontational action. Katz’s Three-Block model offers a different perspective on UDL, while at the same time honoring, incorporating, and in no way contradicting the key work of David Rose and colleagues in this area. According to Loreman, Deppeler, and Harvey (2010) DI refers to “… pedagogical techniques used in the classroom to deliver the appropriately designed curriculum to a wide range of learners” (p. 141) while De Jesus (2012) adds that “Differentiation is the practice of modifying and adapting, materials, content, student projects and products, and assessment to meet the learning needs of students. This is all done in order to produce purposeful, motivated learners. It started with an overview of inclusive education before briefly addressing the historical antecedents that have led to the most common forms of pedagogical practice for inclusive education in use today. Inclusive education: Inclusive Education is defined as, all children irrespective of their strengths and weaknesses will be part of the mainstream education. Create lesson plans that include a social element, such as paired readings, group work, experiments, projects, and performances. From the perspective of teachers, Katz (2015) found that a group of 58 Canadian teachers who had adopted the Three-Block Model of UDL felt that this model had improved their practice and self-efficacy perceptions related to inclusive education, as well as reducing their workload and increasing their job satisfaction. Inclusive pedagogy involves the judicious use of technology. Most teachers did not grow up surrounded by the sorts of technology that the students of today come to school having experienced and so have an obligation to become informed about what exists, what is helpful, what is dangerous, and what is simply pointless. It has been found, however, that IEPs are problematic when it comes to inclusive pedagogy. Inclusive pedagogy requires teachers to adopt a humble and introspective attitude. Diversity is present and must be accounted for so as to ensure an elimination of learners on the margins. That is, it must be safe, challenging, and supportive for each student. Hockings, C. (2010) Inclusive learning and teaching in higher education: a synthesis of research, York: Higher Education Academy. To quote Bouillet (Bouillet, 2009), inclusive education can be thought of as a philoso- Multiple means of reaching students must be employed for all students. However, there is some difference. While they are currently drifting slowly out of favor in some areas of the world, IEPs are still used today in many mainstream contexts with the intent of promoting the inclusion of children with disabilities, language learning, behavior, or other issues. Includes videos on strategies. This can be especially effective if done in collaboration with teaching colleagues so that the various issues can be explored from a range of viewpoints through dialogue. Furthermore, they have had extensive experience working with children in an auditory-verbal approach and have passed an international exam on auditory-verbal. By the time he was accepted to BAA, he was still reading at a fifth-grade level. This involves the provision of a variety of methods of response to communication, including a variety of tools such as assistive devices for those with disabilities. Since the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which advocates the placement of special needs students in the least restrictive classroom environment, children with hearing loss have increasingly been included in mainstream settings. Second, they stress the need for the provision of options that encourage students to sustain effort and persistence. Without effective pedagogy we have no operative method of education and, without purposeful and effective inclusive pedagogy, we have no basis for meaningful inclusion. The first principle, multiple means of engagement, advocates the presentation of a variety of ways for students to become involved in the learning. In Turkey, Bal’s (2016) study involving 57 students found that improved grade 6 student achievement in algebra was correlated with the use of techniques associated with DI, concluding that “applying [a] differentiated teaching approach within class increase[s] students’ mathematical thinking and mathematical achievement positively” (p. 199). Inclusive education is on the global agenda to attract the involvement and collaboration of all stakeholders. Katz’s Three-Block Model of UDL is on a good research trajectory and the IPAA is still too new to reasonably expect a large body of evidence to be currently available on its effectiveness. Technology and instruction. Inclusion provides several advantages. In what ways is the pedagogical approach influenced by the traditional classroom format of teaching and learning? If you are an auditory learner, try these strategies to improve your learning experience. An earlier study by Katz (2013) involving 631 Canadian students yielded similar results with respect to student engagement, with the additional finding of improvements in both student autonomy and inclusivity in classrooms that adopted the Three-Block Model of UDL as compared with those that did not. In order to discern what inclusive education is, it is necessary to consider local conceptualizations of childhood and children’s rights, models, and structures of schooling, societal norms, and other regional conditions. What is evident is that the carefully considered use of technology in the classroom is helpful and is an essential element of inclusive teaching. How to recognize auditory learners in your class: Auditory learners tend to learn better when the subject matter is reinforced by sound. Also information will be given about models of disability which influenced idea of inclusion. The dilemmas faced are viewed as dilemmas for teaching rather than as being an inherent problem of the student’s. 2 In a study of more than 600 educators, Villa and Research supporting each of the models, or a discussion of the need for further research, was provided in each instance. The adoption of differentiated instructional strategies came about as a response to some of the disadvantages inherent in the traditional approach to teaching in classrooms. Auto download. What are the roles of the teachers and learners? A further criticism of VAK is that Willingham (2012) claims that most memories are stored in terms of meaning rather than in a visual, auditory or kinaesthetic way. The third assumption is that teachers continually develop creative and new ways of working with others. Individual differences are acknowledged, but such differences can and should be catered for in the course of everyday teaching and learning. This is about fostering goal-directed learning that employs strategies best suited to the individual learner. How to Prepare for Different Kinds of Tests, ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. With UDL the provision of “multiple means” is critical to each step of the process, from promoting student engagement, to representing and communicating, and then on to student action and expression. No-one. In this way a special education practice has found its way into so-called regular schools. One of the more recent contributions to the area of pedagogy for inclusive education that is garnering some attention is the IPAA developed by Florian and Spratt (2013). Pilot programs: There are staff who are interested in and/or willing to try inclusion, so they will test it It was not responsive to individual needs and preferences, with instruction typically focusing on rote memorization with little emphasis on critical and higher-level thinking skills (De Jesus, 2012). These principles, however, are best viewed through a critical lens that highlights cautions for teachers engaged in inclusive teaching. In order to do this a key area in which they must respond is that of pedagogy. Where IEPs and other such practices and tools have been helpful in the development of inclusive pedagogy is in drawing attention to the idea that a single “one size fits all” course of study is not helpful when trying to meet the needs of a diverse range of learners, and that attention needs to be paid to individuals as opposed to a purely theoretical class of learners in which no form of significant diversity exists. The special education system was developed for a variety of reasons; however, the result has been that children with disabilities tend to be separated into far less elite contexts for their education. This responds to the criticism of Pappano (2011) that DI singles out and stigmatizes some students who notice that they are doing different work from other students, and Florian (2015) who notes that in differentiating we identify those on the margins first—an activity that inevitably leads to exclusion. In committing to this style of practice a teacher assumes responsibility for all learners in a class, a habit that has become sometimes compromised by the presence of other professionals and supports that have, in many cases, relieved the teacher of the full responsibility of educating all children. Larger-scale investigations of each of the pedagogies discussed in this article are therefore needed. Fluencies in terms of various communicative modalities can be built: for example, enhancing listening and verbal skills, or improving comprehension and construction of written work. 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